Swami Lakshman Joo Raina (9 May 1907 - 27 September 1991) was a mystic of Kashmir Shivaism . His followers also called him Lal Sahib (friend of God).

Swami Lakshmanjoo was born in Kashmiri Srinagar as the fifth of nine children. His father was Naraindas Raina (Nav Narayan), and his mother's name was Arnyamali.

At the age of 30 he traveled to Bombay in India and then spent a short time with Mahatma Gandhi in Sevagram. Then he visited Sri Aurobindo in Pondicherry and continued to Tiruvannamalai to Ramana Maharshi . Then he returned to Kashmir, where he lived until his death.

Lakshmanjoo wrote a series of books and translations, some of which were published later.

  1. 1933 - Gitartha Samgraha (Abhinavagupta's Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita )

  2. Lectures on practice and discipline in Kashmir Shaivism

  3. 1985 - Kashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, edited by John Hughes (Essence of the first 15 chapters of Tantraloka)

  4. 1986 - Hindi Commentary by Swami Lakshman Joo on Abhinavagupta's Bhagavad Gitartha Samgraha

  5. 1994 - Self Realization in Kashmir Shaivism, oral teachings by Swami Lakshman Joo, edited by John Hughes

  6. 2002 - English translation of the Shiva Sutras , edited by John Hughes



Regarding yoga discipline, Swamiji followed the traditional interpretation of yamas (observing) and niyamas (rules and regulations) as Patanjali set forth in his yoga sutras. But Kashmiri Shaivism is an independent approach to the eight members of Ashtanga Yoga .

The Tantraloka says in the 5th Ahnika: In Kashmir Shaivism , the Yamas, Niyamas and Asanas are not added as members of Yoga . It follows the Raja Yoga .

In his translation of the fourth chapter of Tantraloka , Swami Lakshmanjoo explains that Abhinavagupta considered only the six limbs of yoga pranayama, pratyahara, dhyana, dharana, tarka, and samadhi to be important. The eight limbs of Patanjali yoga help aspirants who are at a lower level of practice. These funds are known as anavopaya. For the more advanced practices of shaktopaya and shambhavopaya (highest means) those means are useless. The main point here is awareness or awareness .

In the Trika, pranayama, pratyahara, dhyana and dharana are considered as external ways of maintaining the power of yoga. The important member of yoga here is tarka (discriminating perception), ie distinctive transcendental logic.

This fifth link of yoga involves the distinction between individual and universal and thus discriminating logic and reasoning from one's own consciousness.

However, Swami Lakshman Joo attached great importance to ahimsa (not injuring) of the Yama and Ishvara Pranidana (devotion to Shiva ) of the Niyama.